(In memory of Russell. A seeker of truth.)

Swart, J., & Smith, R. L. (2012, July). Typology of Female Partner Serial Sexual Offenders. Poster session presented by Joan Swart at the 30th International Congress of Psychology, Cape Town, South Africa, 22-27 July 2012.

Two distinct typologies are illustrated.

Click here to download a PDF file of the presentation.


Swart, J., & Smith, R. L. (2011, September). Prospects of criminal profiling: A critical review of the BRACE Character Profile. Poster session presented by Joan Swart at the 17th South African Psychology Congress, Johannesburg, South Africa, 14 – 16 September 2011.

The objectives of the current study are to (1) briefly address the potential of offender profiling and current shortcomings, (2) introduce the BRACE Character Profile instrument, and explain the rationale and basic methodology, (3) establish independent accuracy of BRACE, which is compared to published averages achieved with traditional profiling methods, and (4) highlight the potential applications and focus areas for future study.

Click here to download a PDF file of the presentation.

The BRACE Character Profile: Profiling Criminal Thought, Behavior, and Motivation (subtitle) Solomon, the Unknown Father of Cognitive-Behaviorism, the North Carolina Sheriffs’ Chaplains Association, Spring Training 2011, at the Holiday Inn Express in Goldsboro, North Carolina, April 4, 2011. To download the related PowerPoint presentation CLICK HERE.


Silva JA, Smith RL, Leong, GB and Nelson B: A BRACE Character Profile Analysis of Serial Killer Graham Young, in Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Volume XV, 371-372; February 16-21, 2009, Denver, CO.


Character Development and Profiling, the North Carolina Sheriffs’ Chaplains Association, Spring Training 2006, at the Holiday Inn Express in Goldsboro, North Carolina, April 3, 2006.


01/09/06 to 03/04/06, I was a “guest instructor” for Dr. Thomas O’Connor’s JUS 428 Profiling course at NC Wesleyan College. The students had the option of using the BRACE Character Profile™ for their class paper, which counted for 30 percent of their final grade. The students had to first rate Hannibal Lecter as he is depicted in the movie Silence of the Lambs to demonstrate that they understood the rating process, then they could select from four options for their paper. It was a fascinating process. The final options:

Option #1: Based on information available at, you do the input ratings on either serial killer Joel Rifkin or Edmund Kemper, or spy Robert Philip Hanssen. Once you provide me with your input ratings (in an email or attachment), I will provide you with graphics, correlation charts and other “aides for analysis” for your subject. Your paper would generally address several questions about the person you rated. There would be two aspects to evaluating your paper: 1) the accuracy of the ratings overall, and 2) your answers to the questions.

Option #2: I will obtain input ratings for an infamous criminal who is currently incarcerated in the US. This would be an UNSUB to you. I will provide you with graphics, correlation charts and other “aides for analysis” for this UNSUB. Your paper would address several questions about the criminal.

Option #3: I will provide you with the input ratings, graphics, correlation charts and analysis aides for spy Robert Philip Hanssen. Your task will be to develop the general interpersonal guidelines for the FBI to follow when interviewing Hanssen to elicit critical information that he continues to conceal. You will answer several specific questions.

Option #5: You propose a case to Dr. O’Connor and the rationale for your paper. The input ratings are established by you, directly or indirectly, by whatever means are available to you. I will provide you with the graphics, correlation charts and analysis aides.

BRACE™ for Character Development: Values and Value Judgments at the UNCW (University of North Carolina Wilmington) Student Organization Leadership Conference, Leading the Way, on September 25, 2004 in Wilmington, North Carolina.

American College of Forensic Psychology
20th Annual Symposium in Forensic Psychology
April 1-4, 2004 • San Francisco, California
Renaissance Stanford Court Hotel


Russell L. Smith, M.S., J. Arturo Silva, M.D., Mohan Nair, M.D., Elizabeth N. Hawes, M.A.

In this study, consensus input ratings were reached by two raters for two separate BRACE Character Profiles™ of the spy Robert Philip Hanssen. The two sets of input ratings and related profiles were completed four months apart, one based on information available when he was hired by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (HIRE profile) and the other based on information available at the time of his trial (TRIAL profile). Under blind conditions with respect to the identity of the person rated, two separate consultations were provided based on the same six specific questions related to the UNSUB’s personality characteristics and potential for employment in an intelligence organization. Both consultations strongly recommended against hiring the UNSUB, described the UNSUB as a narcissistic individual with psychopathic characteristics, who would be insensitive to and disliked by coworkers, and who would be an extreme security risk. The profiles generated far more information about the UNSUB than was necessary to accurately complete the consultation.


Seminar at local community college February 6, 2004:
The BRACE Character Profile™ for Law Enforcement

PowerPoint presentation Part I (22 slides): Interview and Interrogation Techniques based on the BRACE Character Profile™ ... detectives learned how to match the color coded correlations for the 10 DSM-IV-TR personality disorders to corresponding sets of interpersonal guidelines for "good cop-bad cop" role playing. Given the results of a BRACE Character Profile™, the detectives learned how to easily tailor their manner of interaction to fit the subject's unique personality characteristics.

PowerPoint presentation Part II (54 slides): The ABC's of Criminal Thought, Behavior, and Motivation ... prototypical core characteristics of human nature (Type A, Type B, and Type C) were applied to a series of crime variables, including pre-crime variables, types of criminal conduct, types of victims, crime scene and post-crime variables, types of weapons and victim injuries, disposing of the body, types of predators attracted, types of predators attracted to, haunts, type of transportation, types of friends and associates, seen by others as, sees self as, type of sex offender, and consequences.


The BRACE™ model and BRACE Character Profile™ were presented February 21, 2003 at the 55th Annual Meeting 2003 of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in Chicago:
Silva, JA, Smith, RL, Gregory BL, Hawes, E.N. and Ferrari, MM. The genesis of serial killing behavior in the case of Joel Rifkin using the combined BRACE/NDM approach.


The fictional characters Dr. Hannibal Lecter of Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris and Mr. Soren Cabal of Killer Asylum by David R. Williams were the focus BRACE Character Profiles at the 2002 Annual Conference of the National Association of Forensic Counselors at the Radisson Resort Hotel in Kissimmee, Florida on September 27, 2002:

Smith, RL. BRACE (Behavioral Relativity & Cognitive Economics): an overview of the BRACE model, BRACE Group therapy, the BRACE Work Adjustment Profile, and the BRACE Character Profile


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